Enjoy some monkey artwork including monkey mazes and learn about this fascination research. The idea of a gambling monkey may seem strange to many people. Economic researchers from Yale actually performed an experiment that concluded monkeys do gamble, and enjoy doing so.
Sleeping Monkey Maze by Yanito Freminoshi | SOLVED HERE
Why to Experiment on Monkeys
Monkeys belong in the zoo or out in the wild. There are many different species of monkeys from the very large overpowering chimpanzees to the cuter and friendlier capuchin or rhesus monkeys. For years zoologists together with scientists have been using monkeys in experiments. The experiments vary from behavioral science to drug related experiments. Scientists believe that the reactions of the monkey under controlled conditions are very similar to those of the human and in fact the monkey is the closest animal in behavior and genetic make up to humans. One of the most famous experiments ever conducted on monkeys was by Harry Harlow in the early 1960’s. Harlow wanted to see if the monkey could develop love and loyalty to a new mother if taken away from its own birth mother, in other words he was researching how surrogate mothers would be accepted by baby monkeys. The results of this experiment were very positive and it was concluded that if monkeys react well to surrogacy i.e. new mothers when just a few hours old, humans would react in the same way. The experiment was used for family research and to this day the results are still referred to.
Early Monkey Research
In 2005 there were a number of research projects carried out on two types of monkeys to see if they understood risk and how the monkey would react to risk. The first noted experiment was carried out by Tommy Blanchard a cognitive scientists. He devised a computer game with two different bright images on the screen. The monkey was invited to choose one of the screens according to his preference and if he chose correctly he was rewarded with juice. Blanchard upped the stakes in the game by offering three types. The first game type had one side consistently rewarding the monkey his juice if chosen. The second game rewarded the monkey for alternate choices and the third game choice rewarded the monkey totally at random. The experiment results noted that the monkey always made a decision based on a pattern or bias. He always expected there to be some kind of pattern. The conclusion from this experiment noted that just like at the online casino when gambling, monkeys like humans prefer to stick to a pattern in the hope and belief that they will gain more from their pattern rather than a random choice even if the random option cannot predict what will happen. In other words the monkeys like risk and prefer a riskier choice. The results of this test were also used by drug companies as it was noted that the monkeys with lower levels of serotonin tended to take even higher risks and it was concluded that these were more compulsive monkeys and hence by increasing the serotonin levels in a person, the compulsiveness of that person diminishes. Researchers took this even further and have developed drugs that help with compulsive orders and addictions.
Monkey Money and Trading
Also in 2005 a Yale economics graduate Keith Chen together with his psychologist partner decided to do some experiments on capuchin monkeys. In a recent interview Chen was overheard saying that he really did not know what he was looking for when he started the experiments and sort of just went along with the flow until he began seeing some incredible results. Chen used the capuchin monkeys because he described them as “a bottomless stomach of want” with a very small brain. The capuchin monkey is classified as a New World monkey being small and brown with a very small brain and therefore not thought of with much capacity for anything but it can be trained and this is what Chen with his colleague did in order to see the behavioral results. Chen developed monkey money; he made a small silver coin with a hole in it. Over a period of quite a few months Chen trained the monkeys to use the money. Each time the monkey wanted a grape or other treat, he had to bring his coin and trade it for the desired treat. This part of the experiment took a long time for the monkey to get used to but the results were good. In time the monkey realized that in order to receive a treat he had to trade his coin. Once Chen was happy with the use of the coin as a trading piece i.e. monkey money he introduced more coins to the picture. Each monkey was given his own stash of 12 monkey money coins. The monkeys learnt to exchange the coins for different treats, whether it was Jell-O or grapes or apples. In time the monkeys were using their money very happily for different items that their keepers offered. At one stage, Chen decided to change the price of items i.e. two cubes of Jell-O for one coin instead of one cube. This produced a very interesting and what has now been classified as natural response. The monkeys realized the price had been dropped on the Jell-O and as economics define, the monkey bought more i.e. took advantage of the lower price to stock up.
How the Monkey Gambles
There were a number of variations to this research project that Chen introduced and observed. One day he fed the monkeys slices of cucumbers that looked like the coins i.e. round with a hole in them. The monkey at first tried to eat it and then brought it to his keeper to try and exchange it for a better treat. There was pandemonium on some days when the coins were given out in a non-ordered manner; one monkey tried to steal coins from another monkeys share. This is very similar to human behavior in every aspect. Chen also introduced a gambling game to the experiment with some incredible results. There were two types of gambling games. In the first gambling game, the monkey started with one grape and a coin was flipped. If the right side of the coin landed then the monkey gained another grape but if on the wrong side the monkey lost his grape. The second gambling game offered the same odds but appeared to be different. The monkey started with two grapes and the coin was flipped. If the right side of the coin landed, the monkey was able to keep both grapes but if the wrong side of the coin landed the monkey lost one of the grapes. Both games had the same odds but the experiment proved that the monkey, just like human behavior preferred to gamble on a potential gain rather than a loss i.e. he preferred to play the first game where he could always increase his winnings rather than lose them.
Concentrating on Potential Gains
There have been many different experiments conducted on monkeys over the years but these experiments conducted in 2005 at the New Haven hospital in Yale have been the most conclusive so far in regards to similarities in behavior and pattern seeking between humans and monkeys. The monkey always prefers to make a choice where he expects a bonus; something with a pattern is his ideal choice. The monkey has a small brain and researchers do not think that the results of the experiments are because the monkey sat down and thought out the odds in each case but rather it is an impulse behavior based on the inbuilt impulses of the monkey that are very similar to those of the human. Before starting his main experiment Chen fed the capuchin monkeys marshmallows. The monkey does not know how to say no or stop and just kept eating until he threw up all of the marshmallows. After the monkey had thrown up, he was fed more marshmallows. The monkey did not refuse; he had blotted out of his memory the bad feeling he had from throwing up and just wanted to gain more of the good treats. This method is also used at the online casino when gambling, the memory tends to obliterate the losses and concentrate on the potential wins that can be gained. In fact one of the well-known gambling strategies called the Martindale suggests that players should increase their bet after every loss in the event that when they actually do win, they will win back all their losses.
Using Monkey Behavioural Results for the Online Casino
There are many aspects of the monkey’s behavior and reactions that can be used towards different theories at the online casino. The monkey is always looking for a pattern, a similarity between his choices something that will remain more or less constant. At the online casino, players are constantly looking for a pattern to their playing whether it is bets on the roulette table or when playing keno. The player tries to stick with the same consistent pattern in the belief that the consistent patter will eventually bring a win even if the game is totally random. Human nature for some reason, as proved with the monkeys, likes patterns and consistency whether in playing a game of keno or going to the same familiar shop each day and buying the same familiar products. When an element of change is introduced the monkey still prefers the same standard choices using his instincts that subconsciously tell him the same pattern will bring in more winnings. The monkeys without totally understanding what they are doing believe in winning streaks, they choose the same light consistently on the computer game in order to maintain their pattern and keep winning even when the odds are changing. These experiments were conducted by professors and trained professionals in behaviour, economics and psychology but the truth is that any person would be able to see the similarities between the monkey behaviour and that of a human. If a price drops at the supermarket, the human will buy more and stock up on that particular item. If the human is playing a game of craps at the online casino he will tend to keep the same numbers for consecutive turns in other words he is working on the subconscious theory that a pattern will bring him better results.
Safe Experimenting and Gaining Knowledge
There are many organizations that believe experiments on animals are unfair and inhumane. In the experiments described here, no monkey was harmed in any way and in addition the monkeys benefited from warmth and love from the researchers not to mention all the treats of grapes, Jell-O, juices and more. The monkeys cannot talk but they can signal with their eyes, hands and bodies. The monkeys are expressive and know how to show love and affection in the same way they know how to show hurt and disappointment. With every experiment the monkey gained more knowledge and in fact benefited from all that he was being taught. When a monkey misbehaved he was punished, not cruelly, and when he did something good he was rewarded. This is the same way that humans are treated and behave and it is no wonder that the results of these experiments were so conclusive and also proves that humans also like to work according to patterns even if it means taking a higher risk. Monkeys won’t be seen at the land based casinos as dealers in the near future nor will they become the live dealers at the online casino but the results from these experiments will be used by the online casino to offer and provide better games, service and support for each player that includes gambling aware associations for the obsessive players that may be lacking in serotonin. The online casino will not suffer from the results of these experiments but rather has gained more knowledge to provide a better and more efficiently run casino for the online player. And the monkeys? They remain a source of knowledge and understanding for cognitive behavior in humans of all ages thanks to the similarities between humans and monkeys that continue to be proved with every controlled experiment that is performed.
Sleeping Monkey Maze SOLUTION